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Development of A Weapon System
Development of western weapons
The cannon was originated in a stonecutter and battle gun that Alexander used in the ancient wars. Battle guns, once used for attacking castles, are the origin of howitzer firearms, and from stone cutters we developed guns that can shoot heavy pikes instead of arrows. In the 14th century, there was remarkable development in the production and organization of the cannon in France due to the invention of black gunpowder.
Cannon widely means howitzer, from large caliber cannons to guns and small firearms like pistol revolvers. However, the term specifically refers to firearms with battery that, due to size and load, cannot be handled just like regular small cannon. It is, according to its purpose and nature, classified as: heavy machine gun, mortar, airlift cannon, antitank cannon, loading cannon, field cannon, mountain cannon, anti-air cannon, tank cannon, railway cannon, bombardment, or marine cannon.
Field cannon operates strategically in support operations and field artillery operations under specific conditions for standard tactical mission of direct support, general support, and firepower reinforcement. Among these, tactical operation of attack and defense operations support is a source of field battle artillery operations. Let us see its strategic application.
Field cannon for attack operations provides adequate firepower according to plans for maneuvering troops to maximize firearm capacity. Field cannon firepower should cover the relocation, expansion, and advance of attack troops, restrict enemy movements, break apart the opponent's command and control, and wear down the defenses of the opponent with attack preparation fire. In addition, it supports the final assault by controlling an opponent's resistance, covering reformation, cracking down reverse attacks, and preventing the opponent from breaking away from combat and replenishing supplies
Defense operations support delays and break apart an opponent's access to supplies, hinder an opponent's attack with attack preparation, crack down on an opponent's assault with final defense fire, and support reverse attack and assault operations.
e useless due to the emergence of nuclear weapons, rockets and missiles. However, when reviewing restrictions in the use of nuclear weapons, its importance is renewed. Today, improvement has been actively made in the use and function of the canon, and its improvement was not unremarkable but conspicuous, compared with other field weapons or weapon systems.
As principles changed and improvements were made in the process of traditional weapon comparison and assessment, the modernization of field cannon resulted in increased use on the battlefield. In particular, it is important for protection and maneuvering, and in battles with dispersed objectives.
The rocket has been used in war longer than the cannon has. The rocket originated in China in the 13th century and in the 18th and 19thcenturies it progressed as muzzle-loading cannons showed low fire rates, inaccuracy, and short shooting ranges. Accurate rockets began to be produced following the active use of technology subsequent to the Industrial Revolution. After that, the rocket was used as a weapon for sudden attacks when in need of enormous firepower.
During World War II, Germany manufactured V2 rockets with guidance devices that used fluid fuel, and Russia countered with the "Stalin Engine" rocket. Warszawa allies used 122mm BM21 and multiple launch rockets. An artillery battalion formed with 18 BM21 was capable of delivering 30,000 bombs in 20 seconds, equal to 320 shots from a 155mm howitzer. After World War II, more advanced multiple launch rockets were relatively light and enforced firepower in a short time.
Thereafter, Western nations began to focus upon development and arrangement of such weapons in need of rapid suppression of anti-air firearms encampment and antitank encampment and enormous firepower before out-target of armed vehicles with good force mobility. Multiple launch rockets had a lower hit rate than cannons, but were superior to land power suppression. In addition, they could damage a large area by using small bombs or improved traditional high-function bombs, and could fairly destroy an opponent's armed forces by throwing shells including small bombs. It is a type of war ending.
In addition, multiple launch rockets improve the maneuverability of vehicles topped with rocket launchers, save time for reloading, and reduce the number of necessary personnel. Notwithstanding weaknesses in logistics support, multiple launch rockets system will replace heavy cannons.
Maneuverable armored equipment includes tanks as well as armored motorcars and transport vehicles. Tanks were repeatedly developed after World War I when they emerged as effective weapons for destroying encampments during combat. Tanks are now considered basic equipment for land combat.
During World War II, armored motorcars emerged from the necessity of having an infantry transport vehicle that could expand combat power in cooperation with armed troops. There are many vehicles that accommodate specific missions. For example, transport vehicles, which affect the direct and indirect combat power of the army, require the design standards of civil vehicles.
Today, tanks are a major means of land combat for many nations. A strategic objective of the tanks during World War I was to break through tank army divisions or army corps. During World War II, tank army divisions or army corps determined the outcome of war as well as the occupation of the opponent's encampment. Notwithstanding effective antitank means including antitank weapons, the importance of the tank has not reduced under CBR.
Major military organization prior to World War I was classified into infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The cavalry operated with excellent maneuverability and capacity for surprise attacks, but due to continuous firepower development, its objectives were restricted to search and reconnaissance missions. The emergence of the machine gun seriously endangered assaults with swords and infantry rifles and reconfigured the advantages of defense in the battlefield. As a result, World War I became an encampment war, and vehicle development was urgently required to enable quick movement. This resulted in the creation of combat vehicles with strong engines, a limitless orbit and an armed board.
In the beginning, the word "tank"was first used by England to mean protection of secret. Tanks were first used by England in France in August 1916 during World War I. However, the tanks' shoddy outer appearance hardly horrified its opponents. The tanks were armed only with machine guns and field cannons that could barely project a small-caliber shell. In addition, the tanks were heavy and slow, so they were only used as a weapon to support the advancement of infantry.
France subordinated tanks to infantry for infantry transport weapons until the 1940s, however independent combat troops were not organized. England developed tank the Accordingly, tanks weighed between 1.4 and 74 tons, and an effective combination of firepower and maneuverability was not realized due to their slow speed. Strategic concepts of tanks changed after World War I, when joint operations using tanks, artillery, and infantry were first tried by England.
In fact, breakthrough warfare, unlike blitzkriegs, focuses upon firepower and quantitative superiority rather than on maneuverability. In contrast, England, France and the U.S. focused upon supporting infantry rather than on joint operations. The U.S. had no tanks during World War I, but it started to produce them by the end of the war. In the 1930's, cavalry troops were mechanized with light tanks, however there were no large scale armed troops before World War II. These tanks were not suitable for antitank warfare since their primary objective was aimed at infantry support and reconnaissance, and during this period, American tanks made no conspicuous achievements.
During World War I, Russia had no tanks, not to mention tank industry. From 1919 it started to produce tanks modeled after western technology and by 1928 it had a production system that operated by remodeling the newer foreign tanks. Starting from 1937, Russia avoided imitating foreign tanks by introducing its own unique model. The Russian tank was identical to those of European nations in terms of protection, maneuverability and arms, but it differed in that the main caliber of the cannon was enlarged and its speed was enhanced. During World War II, the importance of city tank warfare was of the utmost importance in terms of infantry support, and tank development had met a new phase. There was an increased necessity for strong cannon power, as well as a need for armed protection from an opponent's antitank weapons. In addition research into ammunitions development led to the creation of the plastic explosive shell in 1944, and the main cannon caliber of tanks became larger than before. This increased the size and load of the cannon's top gun turret and its role was enlarged.
With the increasing power of opponent's weapons, the scope of arms was extended. At the end of the war, Russia produced the JS tank and Germany produced the Fender and Tiger. During this period, the Russian T-34 tank had the best firepower and maneuverability, adequate arms, and a superior form and low silhouette.
Progress in antitank development was outstanding. In particular, the effects of antitank guided weapons reached an armed penetration capacity of 400-600mm, and guidance methods were incessantly improved. The U.S. equipped M-46, M-47, and M-48 tanks with 90mm cannon, and M-60 tanks with 105mm cannon. Most western countries, including former West Germany, adopted the French AMX30 105mm cannon. England equipped their Centurions with 105mm cannon and their Chieftains with 120mm cannon. Russia equipped their T-44 tanks with 85mm cannon, T-54s with 100mm cannon, and T-62s with 115mm cannon. Russia used bigger cannons than did her contemporaries in the western world. Arms width remained unchanged from the end of World War II until the 1960s. It did increase due to the tank canon's improved function, but it was impossible to defend against antitank weapons with plastic explosive shells.
Post cold war tank development is divisively characterized into 'free' world and 'communist' world developments. Russian tanks were smaller in size but had a larger main caliber of cannon than did western countries. Russia tried to keep costs relatively low by mainly targeting the multiple production of tanks equipped with fire control systems. On the other hand, western countries tried to use superior science and technology to develop expensive tanks with high functions.
Electronic telecommunication
Electronic telecommunication has developed with the history of mankind. During primitive times, letters and signal fires were used as means of communication. Human beings gradually invented group living, and as transport got complicated, organized telecommunication equipment became necessary. When reviewing the history of telecommunications, we see that each nation had its own telecommunication system for defense and anti-threatening.
Until the medieval age, research into electronic telecommunication was not highly developed, however, in 1660, English William Gilbert prepared a base for this science. The process of modern electronic telecommunication technology development can be classified into the following 6 stages.
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