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Development of A Weapon System
Developmental progress of national defense science and technology
 
Fileld Direction of basic research development
Technology using energy
1. Atomic energy element research
  Developments in using nuclear fusion material on behalf of nuclear fission material
2. Electric power enforcement research of atomic energy
  At present uranium is used, but in the future plutonium and deuterium will be used.
3. Other energy research
 
A. Elementary particle and photon energy research is promoted, but they are in an unpractical stage.
B. Electric energy development
C. Research of the artificial element californium
Fileld Direction of basic research development
Material technology 1. Research on the quality, purity and economic production possibilities of material
2. Research on reinforcing the intensity per unit load, shock-absorption, heat-resistance, and    solidity
3. Research on macromolecular material and complex material field development
4. Improved research on material analysis equipment and development of related analysis    technology
Technology using energy 1. Development of the new frequency band
2. Development of intelligence transmission technology though digital waves
3. Expansion of transmission-possible intelligence type
4. Extension of telecommunication-possible distance
5. Development in the miniaturization of weapons, light weapons, and improved reliability
6. Combination transmission function and processing function

Development progress of basic national defense science and technology related to the weapon system<Table 4-4-1> schematizes the developmental progress of national defense science and technology by fields. The research of the basic national defense science and technology field attempts to produce and develop an efficient weapon system by forming a mutual accordance of all the elements of the weapon’s effect with saving costs, considering economic efficiency and priority. For example, as tanks become lighter to improve maneuverability, and the main gun and ammunition loading capacity are enlarged and thickened to improve firepower and survival, the improvement to maneuverability through weight reduction is limited without also renovating the material.
The research and development for evading the fatal technological shock by analyzing each weapon condition that the nation held exactly should continue to be progressed. In particular, world nations including the U.S. continue to compete against one another for themost recent developments in equipment.

Developmental progress per field
Small firearms
The function and reliability of rifles has an immense effect on the capacity of infantry combat and the spirit of the entire force. Consequently, since World War II, nations worldwide have made efforts to develop rifles, in addition to developing nuclear weapons, missiles, and electronic weapons. Nations have raced to progress in the following fields

(1) Standardization of caliber

The gun barrels and bullets of rifles are commonly used for machine guns, so having a standardized caliber would make the transition easier. In addition, a standardized caliber is desirable because it enables large-scale production and ease of supply at low costs. As part of this standardization, western nations develop and use M-16A1 rifles with a caliber of 5.56mm, and the former Soviet Union adopted a 7.62mm rifle as its standard.
As principles changed and improvements were made in the process of traditional weapon comparison and assessment, the modernization of field cannon resulted in increased use on the battlefield. In particular, it is important for protection and maneuvering, and in battles with dispersed objectives.
(2) Systemization
The integration and classification of weapon systems is executed according to structural level, like various types of small firearms, caliber, and ammunition, the common point of production of parts, the convenience of supplying equipment, and the unificationof training for manipulation and operation. For example, the U.S. is in the practical stages of developing a machine gun and light machine gun based on the M-16 rifle, and in the former Soviet Union, an AK weapon based on the AK rifle is currently under development.
(3) Small caliber and light weight weapons
The rifle has been developed as a firearm to fulfill three conditions: to be powerful and to be suitable for actual combat. For example, in the U.S., development continued to progress on smaller folded butt plates and shortened gun barrels on guns in the under- 5.56 caliber category, but it was the development of plastic and light alloy and light-weight ammunition that really enabled progress in rifle length and in ease of carrying the weapon. Small firearms of the shot-type simultaneously form several impact groups with a single charge, which improves their automatic and semiautomatic functions and enlarges their shooting range. These types of firearms are among those currently under development.
The relation between firepower, shooting range, reliability, portability, camouflage, and design deficiencies determines general combat effectiveness. Recently, there has been a tendency to reinforce weak points by developing more effective resources.
Field cannon and mortar
The firepower of field cannon and mortar defended against the naval tactics of enemies in the Korean War. With the appearance of nuclear weapons and missiles after World War II, the development of field cannon and mortar was reduced. However, in case of future local wars, the development of cannon capacity has actively increased since it has been recognized as the main force of ground firepower under bad weather conditions involving shooting or large firepower that missiles are unable to overcome. Consequently, the modernization of field cannons and mortar shows little difference according to the view on the war, military policy, and tactical principle, but generally it develops in the following direction.
(1) Shooting range extension
Methods used to increase the shooting range of field cannon include increasing the muzzle speed by extending the gun barrel of the cannon and attaching an auxiliary rocket bullet or air resistance reduction bullet.
(2) Improved maneuverability
Maneuverability can be improved by making the cannon strong and lightweight so that field canons can be used in quick maneuvers and in the air. In addition, field cannons are being developed so that they can rapidly approach and support attack units like armed troops.

(3) Increased destructive power

The laser shooting range measurer and electronic calculator are used for improving the hit rates of field cannons. The traditional bullet and the Bee Hive bullet are developed so as to improve their canon ball power and effectiveness in killing enemy troops. In addition, the decreased weight allows for convenient carrying in mountain warfare, airlift operations, and long-distance operations, and this reinforces the merits of high-angle trajectory weapons all the more.
Tanks and armored motorcars
The tank reigns as the prince of ground weapons in modern shock speed. Tanks recently entered competitive development stages owing to the development of antitank weapons. Despite anti-tank weapons, the power of tanks is still great. Future tanks should be developed so that maneuverability and firepower can be used together to properly control antitank weapons. The development progress is as follows.
Improvement to maneuverability
A. Grant of strong engine capacity
The engine horse power of the main force tank that each nation uses at present is 600-900hp, while the American M-1 and West German Leopard 2, developed as the main force tanks in the 1980s, increased horsepower to 1,500-2,600hp and also improved engine capacity.
B. Off-road driving capacity improvement
The off-road driving capacity has been improved by continuously expanding stability and speed after present improvements to a part of the tank track.
C. Grant of airlift capacity
30-50 ton class tanks currently form the dominant trend in tank weaponry.
D. Improved capacity for crossing rivers
Nations with many rivers have improved the crossing capacity of tanks without developing extra crossing equipment by attaching a snorkel to the tank.
Increase of firepower
A. Expansion of main caliber of cannon
90mm caliber is the minimum caliber of the main gun on tanks, and firepower is improved by enlarging the caliber size to over 105mm.
B. Increase of additional firearms of main gun
Nations are expanding the effects of firepower by equipping extra firearms and missiles in addition to the main gun. These additions serve to balance out the negative effects of long distance shooting in which the hit rate drops.
C. Improved hit rate and strengthened shooting range
The hitting rate has been improved by calculating the trajectory with a modernized laser shooting range calculator and electronic equipment.
Survival improvement
A. Improvement of armed protection material
Armed protection material superior to the iron plate in terms of durability and weight has been developed for the armed protection and weight reduction of tanks.
B. Variation of tank height
Developments in tank design are moving in the direction of expanding the possibility for tank survival even more by lowering the height of the tanks and changing to the top and bottom to reduce the exposure area.
Antitank missiles and antitank shells
As antitank missiles should hit their target with a single shot, the guidance and control system of missiles should be developed and improved. The recent progress of antitank missiles and shell development is as follows
Antitank missile development
A control device for the shooter is developed using wire as well as wireless, frequency, and infrared rays, if the tracking device of the missile pursues the target without participating in tracking or guiding the missile after the launch.
Force maneuver strengthening
Force maneuver has been expanded by loading the missiles on armored motorcars or choppers for complementing the demerits hit by enemy fire.
Coverage strengthening
The use of missiles got extensive when the Maw or Law antitank guidance missile except for the Row are replaced continuously and the new application method of Tow emerges.
Increased shooting speed
The shooting speed of missiles has been expanded by increasing the early shooting speed, improving the guidance method, and using a strong projection propellant.
Nuclear weapons
Atomic and nuclear weapons are used in two fields of peace and military. Nuclear weapons use the energy exhausted in a nuclear reaction. As mentioned in the basic national defense science and technology development progress of <Table 4-4-1>, the nuclear weapon has seen sharp development, which is summarized as follows:
(1) Possibility of super uranium nuclear weapon
Development has led research to try nuclear fusion materials like uranium 233 or deuterium instead of uranium 235 and plutonium 239, the raw material presently used in nuclear weapons.
(2) Inclination of high-functioning war heads
Research has seen improvement in the purity of raw materials, development of missile body material, improved warhead designs that improve power, increased flexibility in selecting a warhead with power appropriate for the target, and development of multi war heads.
(3) Reducing the remaining effects of radioactivity
In comparison with early bombs, the clean bomb was developed to reduce the effects of remaining radioactivity.
(4) Escalation of nuclear bomb transport system
The transport system developed from transport means combined the nuclear with manned interceptor, nuclear, and the rocket transport system combined the nuclear and missile.
Mine warfare weapons
In the past, the mine was used primarily for defense, but in the present it stands in the spotlight for attack as well. Consequently, nations around the world have concentrated on developing ways to cope with mine warfare, including using minimum personnel to bury, diffuse, or lay the mines, and developing suicidal explosion, delay, and demilitarization devices. In particular, American mine and equipment systems concentrate on the development of FASCAM like cannon shot, aircraft, and rockets that vehicles or armored motorcars are equipped with and the general development progress is as follows
(1) Antitank mine occupancy development
The past, large mine fields were sublimated for a storm effect in proportion to the amount of charging and the development of plastic charging with a small, light body. A superior penetration capacity is projected.
(2) Improvement of burial and diffusion methods
As the necessity to bury mines in large areas rapidly rises, burial equipment is improved and various diffusion methods are being developed using aircraft, cannons, rockets, and vehicles.
(3) Prevention of mine detection
The mine is sealed with a nonmagnetic or plastic airframe to make it more difficult for the enemy to detect and, in addition, the exterior surface of the explosive charging develops in the form of a hard and inelastic body.
Aircraft
The general capacity of aircraft, including choppers, depends on the development of materials, the development of aircraft industry technology and, in particular, the developing tendency to rapidly change the materials used.
The aircraft engine affects the truck, heavy equipment, and fuel consumption rate, and improvements to function are planned. If the atomic engine is practiced, it will equip the partial large aircraft. The prospect for the concrete development of aircraft is summarized as follows.
(1)Development of heat-resistant steel, titanium alloy, and complex material to endure supersonic speeds
(2)Development of low-altitude high-speed flight and automation of navigation functions
(3)Improved aircraft engines with heat-resistant material and cooling technology
(4)Small and light-weight loading equipment
(5)Reasonable operation and features of fighters and bombers
(6)Development emphasizing the multiple maneuverability of choppers
Energy weapons
The energy weapon system is the murder ray weapon. Concentrating particles with the laser beam and electronic component creates the beam. This weapon will be used for ground combat as, in comparison with traditional weapons, it has a rapid reaction speed against targets. It will be the main weapon of future generations in all combat areas, including space, air and naval combat. A high-speed antitank missile destruction test succeeded in the U.S. early in 1978, and the satellite attack test has operated in naval combat for a long time according to the high output survey.
Robot weapons
The development of highly advanced integrated computer circuits recently created the robot and it is already used in industry fields for maximizing business profits. Consequently, it is projected that its application will increase in future military fields.
Guidance weapon
Guidance weapon systems are designed to use internal devices that function as the senses, nerves and brain of the weapon, and enable it to hit targets by correcting the speed and adjusting the flight course of missiles after launch. The fundamental difference between the guidance weapon and other kinds of weapons is that the guidance weapon can be controlled and guided to the target after launching.
The types of guidance weapons are classified as 'inert','directive','and 'pursuit', according to the guidance method used, and they are further divided into 'active','transport', and 'passive' types, according to their main energy support. The progress in development of missiles in each field is as follows
(1)Improved hit rates and development of long-distance cruise missiles by developing guidance methods
(2)Improved capacity for multiple attacks using the poly warhead
(3)Integration of various kinds and large amounts of missiles into multiple missile development
(4)Emphasis on the effect to cost of missile development
(5)Reducing the weight and increasing the function of strategy and tactical missiles
 
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