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Defense Economy:
Development of A Weapon System
The Three Kingdoms Period (ancient history)
The Goryeo Kingdom
Joseon Dynasty (modern history)
Economics of National Defense:
National defense economy
World trade war
International financial system
International capital standings
Grand Strategy:
Analysis of The Northeast Asia Approach toward Korean Peninsula
Security Environment of Korean Peninsula
Defense Economy
Development of A Weapon System
Development of home country's weapons
National defense weapon development has stabilized or declined according to the concerns of the ruler as well as to Korea's geographical features. In the Three Kingdoms Period, the Goguryeo dynasty consolidated its position as Asia's strongest nation by using a weapon called Gungsil(a metal chip adhered to the end of an arrow), and had the most elite military of the Asian empires. King Sejong of the Joseon age fulfilled the advanced administrative record for reinforcement of the defense industry by taking an interest in the manufacture and supply of Hwaso (gunpowder pocket), a new weapon that improved the function of gunpowder. He also encouraged the manufacture of warships and of a gunpowder weapon, Hwatong (smokestack).
Then the defense industry declined as the ruling royal family had no interest in national defense owing to strife among the 'four factions.' The Joseon dynasty faced the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 with the national defense power reinforcement of Yulgok, but fortunately it escaped a national crisis due to the successive victories of the Turtle Boat, the world’s first ironclad ship, which was invented by General Lee Sun Sin.
Even as weapons of advanced western countries, including the U.S., were introduced to Asia at the end of the Joseon age, the King’s father, Heungseon, reinforced Korea’s isolative policies even more as Joseon used concerted efforts to drive back invasions by French and American fleets in 1866 and 1871. As a result, the development of weapons like firearms and gunpowder was further delayed, and the Japanese who introduced new types of weapons used by the western world quickly dispersed the Joseon military. Japan's superior weaponry led to the fall of the Joseon dynasty. We can never forget the lamentable past in which we faced the Korean War, in which we were forced to depend on the U.S. for self-defense, although at least we were free from Japanese oppression with the end of World War II.
Clan society and the age of tribal nations (primitive history)
The Old Stone Age and the New Stone Age of clan societies bound by strong communal ties maintained a primitive civilization. The clan societies made hunting and fishing the main production, but they did not hold special weapons, like those made from using natural stone. Tribal societies (3rd to 4th century BC) increased hunting and fishing ability by producing stone spears, stone swords, bone swords, and stone sticks, and these implements also acted as weapons for the tribes. These weapons created the opportunity to develop privatization of property.

The Three Kingdoms Period (ancient history)

As the development of weapons led tribal nations to gradually privatize property, the Three Kingdoms Period was formed. The weapons of Goguryeo played a decisive role in making the dynasty one of Asia's strongest nations. Weapon production included metal chips like Gungsil, iron armor, and bows that were considered among the most elite weapons of the Asian empires. The Baekje Dynasty merely reproduced weapons like the iron armor and sword of the Goguryeo Dynasty. The Silla Dynasty manufactured the Gungsil and sword and was particularly famous for Cheonbogung (a kind of arrow).
The Goryeo Kingdom

A weapon called Nweseungseokpo was invented during the reign of King Deokjong in the 9th century. Eleven special units called ‘Byeolmuban’, the unit organized for the conquest of Yeojin in 9thyears of King Sukjong (15th) (1104) was organized in case of the gunpowder. When the combined Mongol and Goryeo forces conquered Japan in 1st year of King Chungryeol (25th) (1274), the Mongolian army used iron cannons. However, as Choi Mu Seon, the originator of the gunpowder manufacturing manufactured the gunpowder personally in King U at the end of Goryeo Kingdom, it gave the repercussion so that the shipbuilding technology like fleet, shipbuilding, and merchant ship developed and the trade was prevalent. Unfortunately, gunpowder manufacturing did not develop further, except that on his deathbed Choi Mu Seon handed down a book called 'Gunpowder Training Method' to his son, Choi Hae San.

Joseon Dynasty (modern history)

The founder of the Joseon Dynasty, Yi Seong Gye, organized the government power (civil officials and military officers) and ministry (6 jos). Then, the mission that 6 bus took charge of was same as that of 6 bus of Goryeo and was passive for the firearms development policy. As government power concentrated more heavily on civil officials, a pall was cast over the possibility of reinforcing military war power for defense.
However, King Taejong and King Sejong took great interest in weapons production for national defense. King Taejong commissioned Choi Hae San (son of Choi Mu Seon) to create the fire-attack car, and King Sejong reinforced national defense powerby continuing to develop weapons with Choi Hae San. Their achievements included the invention and manufacture of warships, gunpowder firestacks, and the new gunpowder pocket, which improved gunpowder capacity, extension of Hwaindae in the coast of the whole country, and installation of gun unit in 17 years of King Sejong after spreading and extending the gun like arrangement.
The new fire-attack car wasbeing developed during the reign of King Munjong, but production halted during the period ofKing Danjong period. The fire-attack car was prevalent under King Seongjong and King Myeongjong, but its aspect gradually changed. In addition, the manufacture and improvement of firearms, and domestic pomegranate light were used for the manufacture of gunpowder and contributed to the introduction of the iron gun. Then, the development of weapons production stagnated for a time, owing to the tyranny of King Yeonsangun and decreased concern regarding national territory defense.
Large firearms like the Cheonja, Jija, Hyeonja, and Hwangjachongtong were developed because of a renewed concern over gunpowder weapon supplementation, but these firearms could not penetrate the ships used by the Japanese in their invasion of Korea in 1592. On the contrary, the iron bullets of Japanese rifles penetrated the wooden shields of the Joseon fleets, and as the Joseon continued to be defeated, the common people who were tired of the Japanese invasion burned down the military weapon warehouse containing gunpowder and equipment.
On the other hand, Lee Jang Son and Byeon I Jung felt the necessity of weapon development during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, and they made the Bigyeokjincheonnoi (mechanical bomb type successively launched by hanging the gun after drilling the gun hole on tank), and since 1631, the envoy Jeong Du Won who went to Ming learned the manufacturing technology of guns and telescopes from the western people, and learned the gun manufacturing technology from the crews of the wrecked Netherlands merchant ship, and then made Hongipyo.
After the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the government and nobility ignored the weapons industry, and therefore the weapon industry continued to get further behind. The situation worsened when Daewongun, the father of King Gojong, began a strict policy of isolation after repulsing seven French fleets from Ganghwa Island and driving back five American fleets. Daewongun's policy of isolation further delayed the development of the weapon industry in Korea.
Finally, owing to the straggling weapons industry and belated policy of opening the country by Queen Myeongseonghwanghu to control King Gojong, Joseon military forces were dispersed by Japan and came under Japanese rule.
In 1991, Iraq conquered Kuwait in 10 hours. While, under the international state that the multinational forces including the U.S. attacked Iraq and dissipated the intention of Iraq, the military power should be surely secured for self-defense.
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